Antichristdrama des Mittelalters der Reformation und by K. Aichele

By K. Aichele

Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaftigt sich ausschlieBlich mit dem Anti christdrama; Weltgerichtsspiele und sonstige eschatologische Spiele, wie etwa das Zehnjungfrauenspie1, sind nicht beriicksichtigt. Die Griinde dafiir sind erstens praktisch: die Gesamtheit der eschatologischen Spiele hatte nur in einem erheblich groBeren Rahmen behandelt werden konnen. AuBerdem stellen sich bei den Weltgerichtsspielen Fragen der Textkritik und der Uberlieferung, die bei den Antichristspielen iiberhaupt keine Rolle spielen, so daB in den beiden Fallen vollig verschiedene Arbeits methoden am Platz gewesen waren. 1m tibrigen lag mir daran, die Entwick lung des Antichristdramas tiber einen groBeren Zeitraum zu verfolgen, insbesondere im Zeitalter der Reformation, wo das Weltgerichtsspiel v611ig zurticktritt. Ich habe mich weiterhin auf das Antichrist-d ram a beschrankt. Die nichtdramatische Antichristdichtung ist noch so intestine wie unerschlossen, ein groBer Teil der Texte liegt nur in Handschriften vor. Ebenso steht es mit der F1ut der Prosaschriften tiber den Antichrist. Eine zusammen fassende Darstellung des gesamten Antichristschrifttums ist ohne die notigen detaillierten Vorarbeiten noch nicht moglich. Meine Untersuchung umfaBt den Zeitraum yom zwOlften Jahrhundert, in we1chem das erste Antichristdrama auftritt, bis zum Ende des DreiBig jahrigen Krieges. Nach der Mitte des siebzehnten Jahrhunderts scheint die Produktion von Antichristdramen abzuklingen, und das Thema lebt offenbar nur in der lokalen Volksspieltradition (besonders in Tirol) castle.

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Only on Saturday and Sunday do they meet in church and then they see each other face to face as men restored to heaven. If it happens that anyone is missing from this gathering, they realise at once that he has been kept away by some indisposition of the body and they all go to visit him, not all together but at different times; each takes with him whatever he has that might be useful for the sick. But for no other reason does anyone dare to disturb the silence of his neighbour, unless it is to strengthen him with a word, as it might be to anoint with the strength of advice the athletes preparing for the contest.

After Evagrius, the kephalaion becomes a prominent form for monastic literature in the Byzantine tradition, with specimens surviving from Maximus the Confessor, Symeon the New Theologian, Nicetas Stethatos and others. By convention, chapters appear in multiples of one hundred (which is called a ‘century’ of chapters). There are exceptions: about a thousand years after Evagrius, Gregory Palamas wrote a kephalaiac work in 150 chapters. Evagrius’ own writings feature groups of centuries, but also groups of 90 (which were ‘completed’ in some of the manuscripts by the addition of ten supplementary chapters per group), a group of 153, a group of 137, a group of 56 and a group of 50.

In his Latin translation of the Historia monachorum in Ægypto, Rufinus supplements the original text with this account of Kellia, which immediately follows the description of Nitria: Beyond this there is another place, the inner desert, about ten miles away. This is called Cellia [sic] because of the number of cells there, scattered about the desert. e. in Nitria) and want to live a more remote life, stripped of external things, withdraw there. For this is the utter desert and the cells are divided from one another by so great a distance that no-one can see his neighbour nor can any voice be heard.

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