By Virgil J. Vogel
The aim of this booklet, says the writer, is to teach the influence of Indian medicinal practices on white civilization. truly it achieves way more. It discusses Indian theories of affliction and techniques of struggling with disorder or even is going into the query of which illnesses have been indigenous and which have been delivered to the Indian by way of the white guy. It additionally lists Indian medicinal drugs that experience received recognition within the Pharmacopeia of the USA and the nationwide Formulary.The impression of yank Indian therapeutic arts at the medication and therapeutic and pharmacology of the white guy used to be significant. for instance, such medicines as insulin and penicillin have been expected in rudimentary shape by way of the aborigines. Coca leaves have been used as narcotics via Peruvian Indians countless numbers of years prior to Carl Koller first used cocaine as a neighborhood anesthetic in 1884. All jointly, approximately one hundred seventy medicinal drugs, in general botanical, have been contributed to the reliable compendia through Indians north of the Rio Grande, approximately 50 extra coming from natives of the Latin-American and Caribbean regions.Impressions and attitudes of early explorers, settlers, physicians, botanists, and others relating to Indian healing practices are suggested via realms, with British, French, and Spanish colonies and the younger usa individually treated.Indian theories of disease—sorcery, taboo violation, spirit intrusion, soul loss, unfulfilled goals and wishes, etc -and shamanistic practices used to wrestle them are defined. tools of treating all types of injuries-from fractures to snakebite-and even surgical procedure are integrated. The effect of Indian therapeutic lore upon folks or family medication, in addition to at the "Indian medical professionals" and patent medicinal drugs, are mentioned. For the ease of the reader, an index of botanical names is equipped, including a wide selection of illustrations. The disproportionate cognizance that has been given to the superstitious and unscientific positive aspects of aboriginal drugs has tended to vague its genuine contributions to American civilization.
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Concluded in 1809, Vol. ), Early Western Travels, 65. 13 The numerous references in the Bible to persons being "possessed by devils" and to "casting out devils" provided a respectable background for such survivals of primitive lore. Dr. Waiter C. " He saw a similar signification in our calling apoplexy a "stroke," and the custom of ''rapping on wood" to ward off evil,14 which appears to be no different in principle than the Indian custom of beating on drums and shaking rattles. The Cherokees recognized several dozen disease-causing spirits, animal and human.
The object extracted was not always animate; sometimes a stone or stick was held up by the doctor as the alleged offender. At other times, as in the treatment of wounds or snakebite, the sucking served a really therapeutic purpose, when the doctor drew out pus or venom and spit it into a bowl. 10 Recounting a Minitaree medicine dance in 1833, Maximilian, Prince of Wied, related: "Almost all these people pretended that they had some animal in their stomach. . "11 Belief in the intrusion of extraneous objects as a disease cause existed also among whites.
June 30, 1938, 417-20. 15 James Mooney and Frans M. Olbrechts, Swimmer ManuscriptCherokee Sacred Formulas and Medicinal Prescriptions, Bulletin 99, Bureau of American Ethnology, 42-50. 16 Lewis H. Morgan, League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee or Iroquois, I, 155. 17New Voyages to North-America, ed. Reuben Gold Thwaites, II, 467-68. "18 Another kind of spirit intrusion is the return of the souls of the dead to live in the bodies of their living relatives. Corlett reports that an Eskimo father, for three months after the death of a son, may not drink from an uncovered cup for fear of swallowing some ghost impurity, which would cause certain death.