By Brad Montgomery-Anderson
The Cherokees have the oldest and best-known local American writing process within the usa. Invented by way of Sequoyah and made public in 1821, it was once quickly followed, resulting in nineteenth-century Cherokee literacy premiums as excessive as ninety percentage. This writing process, the Cherokee syllabary, is totally defined and used all through this quantity, the 1st and simply entire released grammar of the Cherokee language.
even though the Cherokee Reference Grammar focuses at the dialect spoken via the Cherokees in Oklahoma—the Cherokee kingdom and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians—it offers the grammatical starting place upon which the entire dialects are established. In his advent, writer Brad Montgomery-Anderson bargains a short account of Cherokee historical past and language revitalization tasks, in addition to directions for utilizing this grammar. The ebook then delves into a proof of Cherokee pronunciation, orthography, components of speech, and syntax.
whereas the ebook is meant as a reference grammar for knowledgeable students, Montgomery-Anderson offers the knowledge in available phases, relocating from more uncomplicated examples to extra complicated linguistic buildings. Examples are taken from numerous resources, together with many from the Cherokee Phoenix. Audio clips of varied textual content examples all through are available at the accompanying CDs. the amount additionally contains 3 appendices: a thesaurus keyed to the textual content; a typescript for the audio part; and a suite of literary texts: conventional tales and a old account of a seek occasion touring up the Arkansas River.
The Cherokee country, because the second-largest tribe within the usa and the most important in Oklahoma, besides the United Keetoowah Band and the jap band of Cherokees, have a good number of those who converse their local language. Like different tribes, they've got obvious a pointy decline within the variety of local audio system, relatively one of the younger, yet they've got replied with formidable courses for keeping and revitalizing Cherokee tradition and language. Cherokee Reference Grammar will function an important source in advancing those efforts to appreciate Cherokee background, language, and tradition all alone terms.
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Extra info for A reference grammar of Oklahoma Cherokee
28) a. \4 b. $] wato howa [wato] [howa] ‘Thank you’ ‘OK’ Short vowels preceding /h/ are devoiced. Because these processes are automatic, the symbols representing devoicing and nasalization are not used in the Romanized script unless they warrant special attention. Both devoicing and word-final nasalization are exemplified in (29). 45 29) dg4d tikatohti [tikatohti] ‘curtains’ Vowels are found in initial, medial, and final position. The vowel /v/ occurs rarely word-initially in lexical items; it does appear word-initially in the Object Focus forms (see Chapter 4) and as a variant of the Iterative prepronominal prefix ii- (See Chapter 6).
Aspiration is an important and pervasive feature of the Cherokee sound system. g. the beginning of a syllable). This English aspiration occurs on the phonetic level; that is, it happens automatically in certain situations and therefore goes unperceived by speakers. A change in meaning never hinges on aspiration. An important difference between Cherokee and English is the status of voicing and aspiration. In English obstruents are in voiced/voiceless pairs: d/t, g/k, j/ch, etc. Whether or not an obstruent 31 is voiced is noticeable to speakers and creates differences in meaning.
1. 13 In the Romanized writing system in this work, length is represented by writing the vowel twice. There are very few minimal 46 pairs that are based solely on vowel length. One clear exception is with the pronominal prefixes where a long vowel can indicate an animate object. One such minimal pair is given below in (31), for more discussion of vowel length and animacy, see Chapter 4. ’ Short vowels often surface as lax vowels, especially in fast speech. A short /a/ is lax and is similar to a mid-central vowel [ə].