A Missing Link in Cybernetics: Logic and Continuity by Alex M. Andrew

By Alex M. Andrew

The relative failure of makes an attempt to investigate and version intelligence will be attributed partly to the generic assumption that the processing of constant variables and the manipulation of discrete innovations can be taken care of individually. during this publication, the writer considers concept-based concept as having advanced from processing of continuing variables. even though "fuzzy" conception recognizes the necessity to mix conceptual and non-stop processing, its assumption of the primacy of concept-based processing makes it evolutionarily implausible.

The textual content starts off by means of reviewing the origins and goals of cybernetics with specific connection with Warren McCulloch’s declared lifetime quest of "understanding man’s understanding". it truly is proven that non-stop platforms can suffer complicated self-organization, yet a necessity for class of occasions turns into obvious and will be obvious because the evolutionary starting of concept-based processing. percentages for complicated self-organization are emphasised by way of dialogue of a common precept that has been termed importance suggestions, of which backpropagation of error in neural nets is a unique case.

It can also be famous that non-stop measures grow to be linked to processing that's basically concept-based, as stated in Marvin Minsky’s connection with heuristic connection among difficulties, and the linked simple studying heuristic of Minsky and Selfridge. This reappearance of continuity, besides observations at the multi-layer constitution of clever platforms, helps a almost certainly invaluable view of intelligence as having a fractal nature. this can be such that constructions at a fancy point, interpreted when it comes to those emergent measures, mirror others at a less complicated point. Implications for neuroscience and synthetic Intelligence also are examined.

The booklet offers unconventional and not easy viewpoints that might be of curiosity to researchers in AI, psychology, cybernetics and platforms technology, and may support advertise additional research.

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This is a somewhat tricky issue, as the operations of formal logic can form the basis of a general-purpose digital computer and can therefore underlie digital arithmetic and hence processing of continuous variables to any required accuracy. ) system, and it is not useful to think about its processing of continuous data in such terms. The last observation should be qualified by noting that it is possible to form a number system with radix one, and therefore no “carries”, such that magnitudes are represented by the length of the number.

This seems to be an appropriate starting point for the study of intelligence, with pattern classification and concept-based processing emerging as later evolutionary developments. This viewpoint was reached after an attempt to apply the principles of the conditional probability computer in a practical control situation. Application to Process Control The problem of reconciling continuous and conceptual information processing arises in attempts to make useful “learning machines” or self-improving devices to perform practical tasks.

A pair of storage locations was associated with each of the 162 boxes. In one of them was stored a value for the mean time to failure after a decision to drive to the left when the point indicating the current state fell inside the box. The other stored a value for the mean time to failure after a decision to drive to the right. The values were “smoothed”, or weighted in favour of recent experience. In the early stage of learning the decisions were made randomly, but as experience was gained they were made to favour the choice that was associated with a longer mean time to failure.

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