By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This e-book is the main accomplished reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken by way of nearly 11 thousand humans positioned essentially in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in response to nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than a hundred and fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar includes the main entire description thus far of the morphology of the language in addition to a radical therapy of word constitution, observe order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe was once divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams throughout the Indian removing of the 1830s. at the present time nearly all of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years previous, and few childrens converse the language. even though extra young ones one of the Mississippi Choctaws research the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to holding the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is severely very important. Compiled through the top scholarly specialist at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a realistic advisor to local audio system and an vital guide for linguists.
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Extra info for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
3. Modern sources of textual information Several examples are taken from Broadwell (lggob), a collection of Choctaw jokes and folktales. Many of these folktales were originally recorded by the staff of the bilingual education program of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. I reelicited these texts with the late Mrs. Josephine Wade, and refer to them by text and line number. I use the following system of text numbers: TI T2 T3 T4 T5 "Why the owl lives alone" "The grasshopper and the ant" "The rabbit tricks the women" "How the bear got a short tail" "Possum tricks wolf" 4.
I have consulted Ketcham (1916), a Choctaw catechism of about two hundred pages. References to the catechism (signaled as "Catechism")are by page number. An additional source is Broadwell (lgglb), "The Divorce of Amos and Molsey Yale. "This text is a Choctaw transcription of the court testimony during an 1897 divorce trial in the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. The original is in the archives of the Oklahoma Historical Society. References to this text are preceded by "Yale" and are to section and line number.
The distinction between configurational and nonconfigurational languages is due to Hale (1983, 1989), but the notion has been extended by other researchers (Speas 1990; Baker 1991) as well. As a result, the set of properties said to characterize nonconfigurational languages differs somewhat from source to source. Here I will look a t the following properties: nonexistence of a verb phrase, discontinuous constituency, extensive use of null anaphora, and extensive use of agreement morphology. 1. Configurationality and verb phrases There are several potential arguments for the existence of a verb phrase (VP) in Choctaw.