By Rockswold G. K.

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**Example text**

4 Ray Propagation with Ray Matrices Imaging and illumination with incoherent light can be calculated to a good approximation by determining the beam propagation of the optical rays. This can be done with ray tracing or for paraxial rays with ray matrices. In ray tracing for a large number of geometrical optical rays the propagation is calculated and then superimposed for determining the intensity distributions. In particular, if many optical elements are in the path the method of ray matrices is very handy.

34). 34 2. Properties and Description of Light 2wi 2wo Fig. 10. 83) . 84) Using computer programs for analytical calculations these solutions can be derived easily. Thus the complicated calculation of propagation of the diﬀraction-limited Gaussian beams through a large system of optical elements becomes very easy. Many non-Gaussian beams can be propagated in a similar way as will be described in Sect. 9 (p. 412). g. for a laser beam. While the beam radius wi can be determined easily (see Sect. 3, p.

A light beam passing such an aperture would be diﬀraction limited. 32 mrad. Sometimes other deﬁnitions for ∆x and ∆px are used. 18) and if the (1/ e) value is applied, as in most quantum mechanical textbooks, the resulting uncertainty is 14 times smaller, resulting in /2. 20) 2π can be derived from quantum electrodynamics. This equation correlates the energy uncertainty ∆E to a characteristic time interval ∆t in which the changes of a given system occur. If the photon energy E is measured for a very short period ∆t it will be uncertain in the range of ∆E.