2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 3: by Kevin M. Miller, MD

By Kevin M. Miller, MD

Offers present purposes of optical phenomena, together with the optical issues with regards to foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs, and refractive surgical procedure and the layout, becoming, and issues of touch lenses. additionally coated are optics of the human eye, the layout and use of ophthalmic tools, simple suggestions of geometrical optics and the present method of low imaginative and prescient administration and imaginative and prescient rehabilitation.

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Additional resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)

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In a vacuum, all wavelengths travel at the same speed. In any other medium, short wavelengths usually travel more slowly than long wavelengths. This phenomenon is called dispersion. In the human eye, chromatic dispersion leads to chromatic aberration. If yellow wavelengths are focused precisely on the retina, blue light will be focused in front of the retina and red light will be focused behind the retina. ) Some media, such as quartz, are optically inhomogeneous. That is, the speed of light through the material depends on the direction of light propagation through the material.

These laws are summarized in the following sections. Optical Media and Refractive Index Light can travel through a variety of materials, such as air, glass, plastics, liquids, crystals, some biological tissues, the vacuum of space, and even some metals. A medium is any material that transmits light. Light travels at different speeds in different media. Light moves fastest in a vacuum and slower through any material. The refractive index of an optical medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the medium and is usually denoted in mathematical equations by the lowercase letter n.

These processes and their therapeutic results depend on laser wavelength and laser pulse duration. A variety of photocoagulating lasers are currently in clinical use: argon, krypton, dye, holmium, and the solid-state gallium arsenide lasers. A second category of laser-tissue interaction uses high-peak-power pulsed lasers to ionize the target and rupture the surrounding tissue. In clinical practice, this process (known as photodisruption) uses laser light as a pair of virtual microsurgical scissors, reaching through the ocular media to open tissues such as lens capsule, iris, inflammatory membranes, and vitreous strands without damaging surrounding ocular structures.

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